Archive for the ‘General’ Category

Neurogical Levels in NLP I.

Hypnosys & NLP

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One of my favourite exploratory models in NLP is Neurological Levels as developed by Robert Dilts. Dilts identified six different levels of experience corresponding to six different levels of neurological ‘circuitry’. Before reading about the levels, choose a behaviour (playing a sport, eating, and writing coaching tips) or a life area (money, sex, relationships) to explore:

Environment - This level defines the external context for any behaviour or event. It asks the question “where, when and with whom does (whatever you’re exploring) take place?”

Behaviour -    This is the level of action, which asks the question “what specifically do you do when you’re engaged in (whatever you’re exploring)?” Behaviour is made up of the specific actions or reactions we take. Regardless of our capabilities, behaviour describes what we actually do at the level of conscious action.

Capability - This level answers the question “How do you do (whatever it is you’re exploring)? What capabilities and skills do you tap into when you engage in the area of your life you have chosen to explore?” Every behaviour we use is a subset of the area of our capabilities and skills. When I write, I am (hopefully) utilizing the skills of creativity, self-reflection, seeing the world from multiple perspectives, critical thinking, and typing.  Essentially, the capability level looks at the thinking that underpins behaviour, the mental maps and knowledge, plans or strategies a person has access to when they’re doing what they’re doing. Some behaviours and thinking patterns have been repeated so often they’ve become automatic (like getting angry, having low self esteem). Maybe it’s time to question them!

Beliefs and Values – Having explored the where, what, and how of your chosen context, the next question to ask is ‘why’? Asking yourself why (whatever you’re exploring) is important will assist you in identifying your values; asking yourself ‘what’s true about (whatever you’re exploring)?’ will begin to bring out your beliefs.
Our beliefs and values direct us and act a bit like a dual purpose valve both allowing and preventing certain things. Beliefs can be both permissive and limiting. Our beliefs and values provide the reinforcement that supports or denies our capabilities.

Identity - Your sense of self and the way that you see yourself that determines who you are. Who you are, the persona you inhabit, and how you define yourself has a huge impact on your life. Our sense of identity encompasses a vast constellation of beliefs and values about the world, and is a powerful key to unlocking transformational change. Ask yourself “Who am I when I am engaged in (whatever you’re exploring)?”

Spirit or Purpose - Spirit is my connection to a higher power – my sense of being part of a greater whole. Spirit may be your sense of mission, higher purpose, or your connection to God or your connection to that which is beyond your scope as a human. Choose the language that works best for you and ask yourself “Who or what else is involved in (whatever you’re exploring)? How does it fit in with the big picture of my life? How does it fit in with the big picture of my life on earth?”

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Neurological Levels have been represented in many ways. Here are a few of the more common.

NLP and Values

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Accelerated Learning

(Please use one of the inductions to induce hypnosis that is most suited for your client from learn hypnosis course or if you prefer choose one of your own)

As I am relaxing now I am letting go of any part that affects my learning ability.

And as I have let go completely of the part of me that inhibits my learning.

I have let go of




I am now enjoying my studying more than ever before. Thinking more clearning learning ability impoving 10x more than ever before.

I am developing a success conciousness. I imagine success, I think success, I know I will pass. I visualise success. I know I will pass and feel the happiness, the sense of pride within me and because my unconscious mind wants me to be happy, I decide now to let go of all part of me thinks I could fail, failure is in the past, I know I will pass.

You find that you are able to think much more clearly and you are able to concentrate much more easily. You become so deeply absorbed and interested in the subject that you are studying that you will want to give your full attention to what you are studying, to the exclusion of everything else.

Because you are so interested and absorbed in your studies, it becomes so easy for you to grasp and understand all the things that you read. And all the things that you read impress themselves on your memory to enable you to remember them more easily.

And every time that you are hypnotized you will find that your memory improves enormously and you find it so much easier to study. And you will not only remember what you have read so much more easily, you will also find that you are able to recall it without difficulty, whenever you need to do so.

Just as you have tested yourself recently you know you understand the information you like taking tests!
Tests allow me to understand how I’m doing. Tests allow me time to relax my muscles as I concentrate on using my intelligence. I look forward to examinations. I enjoy expanding my mind and all of its abilities.
Tests allow me to focus on valuable information and knowledge.
Someday I may need this knowledge in my life. I may someday use the information I’m learning to help someone I care about, to increase my self worth or to progress in my career.

All of the information I study is recorded for easy access whenever and wherever I need or want it. I can quickly and easily retrieve this information. When I study, each and every word I read or hear has its own meaning and importance. And I can recall it with ease.

I imagine my mind is like a video camera.
This video camera is recording all of my experiences… Everything I see is recorded. Everything I hear is recorded. Everything I feel is recorded.
All of these events and all this information is being recorded in my brain…All of this information will be readily available whenever I want it.

Before I take each test I will review this information.
I will read over the information many, many times. As I do this, I will become very relaxed. It’s so easy to quickly learn and absorb knowledge as I feel relaxed, calm and alert continually.

When its test time I will take take three relaxing, deep breaths when I enter the test taking area.
As I exhale, I will concentrate on letting all of the tension out of my body.
As I first view the test, I will take three long, satisfying breaths, concentrating on relaxing my body.
As I more deeply relax, my mind becomes even more fully alert and aware, running at full efficiency. When I reach a question that seems not as easy, I will skip it, relax as I answer the easier questions, then go back to it later. I realize that the questions that are not as easy will help me to prove my improved level of knowledge. I am much smarter than I ever thought possible.

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    Why are doing that…       STOP!

    Many people who come and see me are in a bad place, a bad job, or a bad marriage, bad debt, bad life, bad patterns, bad habits, yo yo dieting, crap job..


    Yesterday I was told by a client I am going to lose my job..


    And the question people are asking is, when do the good things start?


    I’m about to reveal the real answer.  Now – full disclaimer and warning here – you may not like my answer. …


    So here goes: The same day after helping 2 clients one with confidence and one with stress I went to get a sandwhich..


    I saw a guy at the sandwhich shop he was well stressed out. He said do you have any chicken? No (said the shop assistant)

    "RIGHT" He said and went to storm out the door, he pulled the door it didn’t open.

    He pulled the door again it didn’t open.

    "TYPICAL" He said, "bloody door" (blaming disempowers)


    He pulled the door again "GRRR"

    He pulled the door again..

    "GOD SAKE WHATS Wrong with the door

    "push the door said the owner"


    I was laughing on the inside.. so hard,

    I wanted to see how many times he would  do the same thing getting a poor result that isn’t the desired one.

    People are like that. It’s the same with diets they don’t work!

    Want to change a habit or a pattern its locked in your subconscious, want to get change the easy way. See my free video on


    Heres the thing…


    If you put a mouse in a maze with cheese at the end, the mouse will run the maze for the cheese.  But if you take the cheese away, the behavior will "extinguish" or STOP and eventually the mouse will stop running the maze.


    They did an experiment in an  university.  The psychology department built a maze in the bottom of the building for students to run.  They put money at the end of the maze and since college students always want money, they would run the maze.


    But here’s the interesting part, when the experiment was over and they took the money away.  Students never stopped running the maze.


    In fact, they caught students breaking into the psychology building at night to run the maze hoping to find the money.


    It was EASY to get a MOUSE to change a behavior.  


    It was nearly IMPOSSIBLE to get a HUMAN to change a behavior.

    WHY its locked in your subconscious, if you want change work with a hypnotherapist and nlp master in london..


    And that’s where I come in.


    I use hypnosis to change peoples’ mindset.


    Because according to your subconscious mind, you get what you focus on.


    What you focus on without knowing it you bring into your life..

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    Mind Reading

    To easily hypnotize someone, we need to build rapport there are many ways to build rapport. We can see where there eyes go to work out how people are using their mind. One of the best ways Iuse to hypnotize people  is to access their state and then lead them to the state of hypnosis. If you want to know how to do this attend my weekend course where I reveal the secrets how to do it  learn hypnosis

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    By observing a persons eye patterns, we can get clues as to where they store related information and how they will problably act upon it.


    Learn Hypnosis

    Bandler and Grinder observed that people move their eyes in systematic directions, depending upon the kind of thinking they are doing. Not “WHAT” they are actually thinking, but “HOW” they are thinking. These movements are called eye accessing cues. The chart below indicates the kind of processing most people do when moving their eyes in a particular direction. A small percentage of people are "reversed," that is, they move their eyes in a mirror image of the chart below.

    A person accessing visual images will move their eyes up and to the left or to the right, or they may just stare straight ahead with unfocused eyes. The person may therefore be thinking in pictures and visualising images.

    Those who move their eyes to the left or right (i.e. on a level between their ears) are either remembering or constructing sounds.

    Those who move their eyes down to the right (as you look at them) are accessing their internal dialogue or self talk (Auditory digital). That is, they may be making sense of what is going on around them through conversation with themselves.

    Those who move their eyes down to the left (as you look at them) may be accessing their feelings and how they feel about something.

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    Eye Accessing Cues – Diagram

    The diagram above is for a "normal" right handed person. Many left-handed people and some ambidextrous people will have eye movements that are reversed.

    Vr Visual Recall
    Seeing images from the memory, recalling things you’re have seen before.

    Vc Visual Constructed
    Seeing images of things you have never seen before. When you are making it up in their head, you are using Visual Constructed.

    Remember: Some people access visually by defocusing their eyes. When this happens, the eyes will usually stay in the centre.

    Ar Auditory Recall
    Is when you remember sounds or voices that you’ve heard before or things that you’ve said to yourself before.

    Ac Auditory Constructed
    This is making up sounds that you’ve not heard before.

    K Kinaesthetic (Feelings, sense of touch)
    You generally look in this direction when you’re accessing your feelings.

    Ad Auditory Digital (Talking to yourself)
    This is where your eyes move when you’re having internal dialogue.

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    Profiling Personality

    Personality Profiling can be easy if you’ve already learned to calibrate on a deep level. See the body language, and hear their words.  Having the fundamentals of either NLP and being an expert in hypnosis, can help you mind read a person like a book. Can you imagine how much this could help you  in deepening your personal relationships or building rapport with your customers?

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    People experience themselves and the world through the senses of seeing, hearing, feeling, smelling, and tasting.

    These sensory modalities are the means by which people code, organise, store, and attach meaning to input from the outside world. These are our Representational (Rep) Systems. As sensory input is internally processed (re-presented), it is translated into sensory representations or maps which form a synthesis of the original perceptual input. So, Reality (external) and our perceptions of reality (internal) are not the same – "The Map is not the Territory."

    The Senses

    •    V        Visual                       Seeing
    •    A        Auditory                   Hearing
    •    K        Kinaesthetic             Feeling
    •    O        Olfactory                  Smelling
    •    G        Gustatory                 Tasting
    •    Ad      Auditory Digital         Self Talk and Logic

    For the purposes of simplicity, the Olfactory and Gustatory rep systems are often combined with the Kinaesthetic. One other Rep System is often mentioned which is called Auditory digital. This system tends to focus on self talk and logic.

    For many reasons (e.g. due to our memories, beliefs, or values) we tend to prefer using one or more rep system to process information unconsciously over others. For example, some people pay more attention to what they see and will form pictures in their minds when they are thinking. They tend to use words or phrases such as ‘looks like’, ‘have a clear idea’ and ‘let’s focus on’. Whilst someone else might more readily notice how things sound and internally re-present information in the form of internal sounds and use phrases such as ‘let’s talk it over’ and ‘that sounds OK’.

    We can all use any of the rep systems and can switch from moment to moment from one to another. However, we still have a preference for one way of communicating information most of the time. If you can identify which rep system you generally use, and which your client’s generally use, then you can learn how to speak your client’s language and deepen your level of rapport and build the relationship still further.

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    How To Hypnotize Someone & Self Hypnosis Tips


    The first thing you need to do after building Rapport, is to induce the hypnotic trance or hypnosis state.  You do this by getting either yourself or the client to focus their attention.  In basic terms we are getting the client or ourselves to narrow our focus and ultimately get them or ourselves to start to relax.  I will have more information about this on other articles on my blog feel free to check them out here

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    Once the hypnotic state has been induced here are three top tips to deepen the level of hypnotic trance.

    Deepening techniques

    1.    By direct or indirect suggestion.
    "Each time I touch your forehead … notice that you can go even deeper. Go deeper now."
    "With every breath you take, you may find a sense of the deepening relaxation that allows for deep trance to occur.
    "Imagine walking down a flight of stairs that goes down ten steps for each of ten floors, and as you do go deeper in trance. With each step you go deeper. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 and now you are at the first floor landing etc.

    2.    By repeated induction.
    Repeating the induction of trance (called fractionation) deepens the trance. Typically the more times a client is hypnotised, the deeper the client will go. If trance is induced several times in a row in a short period of time without allowing the client to fully wake up each time, the client will go deeper.

    3.    By using Embedded Metaphor.
    Using embedded metaphor will deepen the client’s trance. In fact, the more levels of embedded metaphor used, the deeper the trance which follows (although there seems to be a point of diminishing returns which happens after 12 or so embedded metaphors).

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    Learn Hypnosis Ecology

    Before you start helping with  hypnosis it is vital that you understand the process of ecology…



    "Remember that to change your mind and follow him who sets you right is to be none the less free than you were before."

    Marcus Aurelius

    To be yourself in a world that is constantly trying to make you something else is the greatest accomplishment.

    Ralph Waldo Emerson

    A dictionary definition of Ecology is "the relationship between organisms and their environment." This is a good concise definition but what does it mean to you if applied in the context of your own life and the context of other people? 

    The concept of Ecology in NLP touches on some interesting nominalizations like self and other.  Ecology in NLP can be described as the actions, behaviours and attitudes that are necessary to ensure your own continued personal well being so that you are emotionally, mentally and physically well.  Similarly if acting as an agent of change then by way of your actions, behaviours and attitudes with other human beings you ensure their continued personal well being.

    Influence or manipulation?

    People are attempting to influence us all of the time, in many contexts and situations.  From our parents when we were children to supermarket advertising trying to tempt us with pictures of delicious sun ripened apples to advertising painted on the sides of commercial vehicles. There are attempts to influence us all around. Some of these attempts use NLP patterns to, in my opinion unethically influence us, take a recent McDonalds advert – notice the embedded command.

    ‘If you don’t want a hamburger have a salad’  

    The advert shows a rather small dish of salad and a huge succulent hamburger with fresh crispy lettuce and sun ripened tomato. 

    Notice the effect of reading the last paragraph, especially the words and contrast with an advert that simply shows a dish of salad and a hamburger.

    A perceived truth, if there is such a thing, is that NLP can be manipulative.  The application of some NLP patterns can be used to manipulate people. Note that the NLP patterns in themselves are not manipulative but the person using the NLP process who attempts the manipulation.

    Ethical influence is a personal choice and of course what each individual person regards as ethical can be an interesting subject to explore. If you’re ethical (whatever that means) and you influence people that is fine. People may indeed want to be influenced and they may want to be influenced in such a way that they benefit from any interaction – this is called dovetailing outcomes.

    Sales professionals attempt to influence in all of their interactions.  A customer may not know how much they can benefit from a new product. The influencing process of selling may be something like this…

    • Create and maintain rapport
    • Ethically introduce the new product and all of its benefits
    • Gauge the person’s level of interest
    • If yes – more process until sale is agreed
    • If no – leave and move on

    Unethical manipulation would in this context be a continuing attempt to sell the new product after discovering the ‘client’ has zero interest.

    Please feel free to spend a few minutes to consider what ecology is to you and add your comments at the bottom of this article.


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    Neuro Linguistic Programing – A History

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    NLP originated in the melting pot that was the University of California in Santa Cruz in the 1970s. Students were encouraged to choose whichever classes they wished, to blend Arts and Sciences subjects and basically to design their own education according to their needs and desires. In addition, students and teachers were accorded basically the same privileges and freedoms which led to close relationships being formed across the campus.

    At that time, Richard Bandler, a 20 year old, long haired, chain smoking psychology student was running a gestalt therapy group at the university which was having quite a degree of success. He was also transcribing the therapeutic sessions of Fritz Perls (the father of Gestalt psychology). It’s likely that Bandler was unconsciously using some of the techniques he’d picked up by observing Perl’s work. The problem he faced was that he was unsure of what exactly he was doing that led to his amazing successes in the gestalt group and whilst skilled at achieving these results himself, he was less skilled at teaching others to do what he did.

    John Grinder, at this time was the youngest professor of linguistics in the US and was also based at the University. He was approached by Bandler and asked to observe the Gestalt group in order to see if it would be possible to identify the principles underlying what Bandler was doing. Both became friends during this time.

    They then began to examine the work of Fritz Perls and Virginia Satir (an eminent family therapist) by analysing their writings, listening to and watching their tape and video recordings and by observing Satir in action. Later, they got to know and became admirers of Gregory Bateson who, in turn, introduced them to the work of Milton Erickson (a brilliant hypnotherapist).

    What Grinder noticed was that Bandler (and Perls, Erickson and Satir) were applying certain principles of linguistics / using the same linguistic patterns. They also noticed that Satir spoke to some clients using primarily visual terms, to some using auditory language and to others using kinaesthetically oriented language. Satir had herself been unaware that she was doing this!

    From this work, Bandler and Grinder wrote a series of which described the linguistic patterns and aspects of non-verbal communication which were used to successfully influence and help people. Incidentally, this caused Satir a degree of difficulty as Bandler and Grinder were able to point out the very skilful covert things she did with clients to get her results. Once she realized she was doing these covert things, Satir would stop doing them, because ‘manipulation’ was against her principles.

    Around the same time, Grinder and Bandler began running a psychology course where they taught their approaches to therapy. This was known (informally by students) as "Dr Grinder’s Mind-Fuck 101" The course was eventually discontinued by the University on the grounds that it constituted unauthorized experimentation on and with human subjects. It continued informally as a series of training seminars (for therapists) which were attended by Robert Dilts, Judith DeLozier (who later married Grinder), Leslie Cameron (who later married Bandler), David Gordon and Steve Gilligan amongst others. John O Stevens and Connierae Andreas took tapes of the Bandler-Grinder sessions and edited them into the brilliant volumes known as "Frogs into Princes" (1979), "Trance-Formations" (1981) and "Reframing" (1982). John O. Stevens later became better known as Steve Andreas when he married Connirae.

    Working together and experimenting (with abandon and large doses of creativity) on each other, their friends and occasional passers by, this group began to come up with ideas, insights, and techniques which explained or reproduced the results that people get. It was from this research that field of NLP grew with discoveries such as anchoring, sensory acuity, calibration, reframing, representational systems, and the two Language Models. Many of the personal change techniques such as the New Behavioural Generator and Change Personal History were also discovered here. During this time in the group was involved in extremely adventurous exploration, sometimes being downright irresponsible. There are stories of Bandler and Grinder giving phobias to unsuspecting people in shopping malls, and Gilligan putting waitresses into momentary trances while they were taking his order. Leslie Cameron spent one weekend in deep trance identification with Satir which left her with a totally different, softer voice, her strong Oklahoma accent almost completely gone. It was around this time that Bandler also coined the name Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

    The group began touring the States giving demonstrations / running training sessions towards the end of the seventies which soon became packed put due to word of mouth advertising. Bandler and Grinder reportedly would give students impossible exercises to do. Once they told a seminar that one can tell what people are thinking by watching the ways their eyes move, and asked students to discover how to do this. To their surprise, students came up with what are now known as eye accessing cues. In another seminar, a woman claimed that she didn’t have any bad memories. The NLPers asked her some questions to find out how that was possible, and as a result developed the technique called VK Dissociation, which later became the first half of the Fast Phobia / Trauma Cure.

    As the seminar tours continued into the early eighties, some splits in the NLP camp began to become evident. On the one hand this may have been due to Bandler’s personality which was quite aggressive and his heavy use of alcohol and cocaine.  On the other it may have been due to friction which arose about "who owned the rights to NLP." Bandler sued Grinder (and others) to maintain proprietary rights to NLP, and lost. In any case, they had parted ways and each began to work on their own ideas from which various types of NLP qualification were developed arising from Practitioner and Master Practitioner Courses.

    Since then, NLP has diversified and is being taught using a myriad of approaches. Each student eventually develops their own ‘brand’ of NLP which reflects their training and their beliefs. It’s become a rapidly growing, diversifying and developing body of knowledge and insights which is at best wonderfully creative, life enhancing and incredibly resourceful. At its worst it can be considered manipulative.

    To some people this lack of a body of cohesive standards and styles is unacceptable in a ‘discipline’. But then NLP never has been a discipline – it is always been a little anarchic, a little iconoclastic, a little bit ‘off message’ and, perhaps, it’s strength lies in this diverseness and it’s creative potential requires such a healthy ability to not be standardised.

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    Physiologyof Excellence

    The Physiology of Excellence

    This is my “depressed stance.”  When you’re depressed, it makes a lot of difference how you stand.  The worst thing you can do is straighten up and hold your head high because then you’ll start to feel better.  If you’re going to get any joy out of being depressed, you’ve got to stand like this.

    Charlie Brown

    “It is madness to only prepare yourself physically and leave your mental frame to chance. The difference that makes the difference is learning how to feel strong in your mind as well as your body. Every athlete should understand that you don’t have to have a gold medal around your neck to feel like you’re a champion.”

    Roger Black

    This was developed by John Grinder and is simplicity itself. It is also exceptionally powerful. In a nutshell, Grinder said that our behaviour (what we do and how well we do it) is inextricably linked with our mood and thinking, our posture and our breathing.

    The fastest way to change our state is to change our breathing. So, if you’re stressed, you’re likely to be taking fast and shallow breaths. Change your breathing to deep and slow breaths! Then alter your posture. Posture and breathing are closely linked to how we feel. For example, it would be almost impossible to feel depressed when we are breathing calmly and standing upright with a huge smile across our face.

    Then adopt a state you feel would be a useful one to have. For example, if I start to become nervous when I’m presenting, I move into deep breathing techniques, stand more upright and then ask myself the question “what would a better state be to be in?” If the answer is confidence, I fake it! I act “as if” I was confident. Strangely enough, a couple of minutes of doing all this and I notice that any nerves I did have are either totally disappeared or “at worst” lessened considerably.

    Thoughts comments?

    NLP for Words that Change Minds: Entitlement
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    NLP Comunication Model | NLP Way
    The NLP communication m…  

    How to identify the trance

    Hypnosis Courses London

    Performance Feedback & NLP The NewTechnoology Of Acheivement

    In order to succeed in learning we need to put away our defensive attitudes and open up to the learning.  You cant get in your house if your locked out and it is the same with learning the more you open the door to empowering learning the better. If you want to discover more about hypnosis and get your free mp3 of hypnosis  click below.

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    In this article we are talking about how to give feedback, there are many ways which are discussed below.

    Giving Feedback



    “You’re much too smart to be fooled by a dumb person like you”

    Frank Farrelly


    Develop a built-in bullshit detector. 

    Ernest Hemingway (Author)


    It is not an exaggeration to describe feedback as ‘the fuel that drives improved performance’. Feedback is communication with a person that gives information about how their behaviour is perceived by others and the effect it has on them.  Feedback helps us to learn by increasing awareness of both what we are doing and how we are doing it.


    Within the context of this training, Feedback should be:


    ·         Specific and sensory based

    ·         Descriptive and not evaluative

    ·         Given in a way that encourages the learner to ask questions, respond, seek options and ways forward


    During the course of this training there will be numerous opportunities to both give and receive feedback.



    Giving feedback to yourself



    ·         Step into a clean 3rd position

    ·         List three things that s/he did well, three things that s/he could do even better, three things to add / change or try next time. What impact will this have overall?

    ·         Step into 1st position and collect and integrate the feedback



    Giving feedback to another person



    ·         Ensure the person is in a clean 3rd position

    ·         Direct your feedback to 1st position

    ·         List three things that s/he did well, less well and three things to add / change or try next time. What impact will this have overall?

    ·         Allow person in 3rd position to comment

    ·         Have person step into 1st position to collect and integrate the feedback



    Hypnosis Treatments A to Z

    This is in no way a full list but it does give you some idea to all the ways that learning hypnosis can help you If you want to learn hypnosis I invite you to look at my 2 day course it will change your life for the better

    >>Hypnotherapy course London 

    A Modern Hypnosis Dictionary:The Letter A

    Aesthesiogenic - 
    Sensations of a sensory nature produced by suggestion.
    Abreaction -
    Occurs when the energy of repressed emotion is brought to consciousness. Catharsis. An exaggerated emotional reaction.
    Agnosia - 
    Cond where patient is unable to correctly interpret sensory impressions.
    Agoraphobia - 
    Traditionally defined as the irrational fear of open spaces (from the latin for market place) but is equally often a fear of becoming caught in situation, without means of escape. Paradoxically, this causes withdrawal from that possibility by self confinement.
    Alcoholism - 
    Addiction to the consumption alcoholic beverages. Alcoholic.
    Alexia - 
    Inability to recognize the written word as words. This condition is often the result of a brain lesion but can be caused by suggestion.
    Algophobia - 
    Morbid dread of physical pain.
    Allergy - 
    A condition (allergic reaction) in which the patient becomes pathologically sensitive to a particular substance or substances.
    Amnesia - 
    The loss of memory, partial or total, often caused by shock or trauma. Can be due to physical causes, can be caused by suggestion. Sometimes occurs spontaneously after arousal from hypnosis.
    Analgesia - 
    Reduction or loss of the sensation of pain, can be achieved through hypnosis.
    Anchorages -
    Frames of reference which people use to make further  judgements.
    Anchoring - 
    The technique of associating several ‘keys’ with one fixed point of reference, with the idea of using those keys to later evoke that fix reference. Form of conditioning by association of ideas. Used in NLP and hypnotherapy.
    Anaesthesia - 
    Loss of sensation and sensitivity, usually due to chemical agent (as with surgery) but is also an important phenomenon of deep hypnosis. Hypnosis can be used as an anaesthetic and many instances of it’s usage are on record.
    Animal Magnetism -
    A term coined by Franz Anton Mesmer (1734 – 1815), who theorized that the effects of ‘hypnotism’ (which was then to be called ‘Mesmerism’ after him and before that time known as ‘Charming’) were due to a fluidic magnetic medium that could be passed from person to person. 
    Anorexia Nervosa -
    Severe eating disorder, often due to irrational ‘body image’. Patients may even hallucinate that they are over weight when close to starvation. Characterized by refusal to maintain body weight at a healthy level.
    Anxiety - 
    A state of disturbance characterized by fear and worry, which often leads to stress. May be rational or irrational. Responds well to Hypnotherapy.
    Aphasia - 
    Loss of the ability to speak, usually through non-physical causes and typically a symptom of hysteria. Can also be produced by hypnosis (without the presence of hysteria). Can also be caused by lesions of the brain (cortical).
    Aphemia -
    Inability to speak certain words.
    Arachnaphobia -
    Excessive fear of spiders.
    Asthma - 
    A disorder of the respiratory system which may be of allergic or emotional origin. Where there is an emotional origin the condition can be successfully treated by hypnosis, usually through regression. 
    Astraphobia -
    Excessive fear of thunder and lightening
    Atavistic Theory - 
    The theory proposed by Ainslie Meares M.D. to explain the phenomenon of hypnosis. He posited that in hypnosis the higher centres of the brain are systematically closed down and access is gain to parts of the brain which are primitive and pre-rational. Thus hypnosis could be explained as a form of regression to pre-critical functioning.
    Attention - 
    The ability to sustain ones awareness by focusing it on a particular thing.
    Aura - 
    The feelings experienced by patients before an attack of epilepsy or migraine headache which warns them of it’s imminence.
    Auto-Hypnosis - 
    Is where an individual has learned the ability to place himself in a state of hypnosis. 
    Autogenic - 
    Relating to things which originate within the self.
    Autonomic -
    Self directed, independent.
    Autonomic Nervous System -
    The nervous system responsible for many of the body’s functions, particularly those of the glands, the smooth muscles, respiration and circulation. It is located along the spine and cerebro-spinal system and completely efferent in function. Its is reactive and responsible for the ‘Fight or Flight ‘response.
    Auto-Suggestion - 
    Suggestions which originate from within the individual.
    Aversion -
    A strong dislike of something.
    Aversion Therapy -
    A form of de-conditioning by associating something unpleasant with a particular behaviour pattern you are trying to eradicate. Typical of behaviour therapy it is used sometimes in hypnosis, for example, to associate a foul thing (like dog excrement or vomit) to the act / taste of smoking, thus helping to de-condition and extinguish the habit.

    A Modern Hypnosis Dictionary:The Letter B

    Bathophobia -
    Excessive fear of deep water.
    Behaviour Therapy -
    A means of modifying behaviour by examining the symptoms of a particular problem, then employing various conditioning techniques to modify or remove these symptoms, ie. flooding, reciprocal inhibition, aversion therapy, systematic desensitization, massed practice etc.
    Biofeedback -
    The use of electronic apparatus to give specific signals to indicate changes in the body. Through using this ‘feedback’ of information patients can learn to affect normally autonomic processes like heart rate and blood pressure. Can be used in hypnosis to teach tense patients how to relax.
    Birth Trauma -
    Trauma and anxiety caused by the rigours of the birth process. A possible cause of some free floating anxiety. Re-birthing (developed by Leonard Orr) is designed to reconnect and release the patient from the effects of this trauma. In hypnosis the patient would be regressed to this birth time, with similar effects.
    Blepharospasm -
    A condition which causes involuntary spasm and closure of the eyelids. Can have physiological or psychological origins. If the origins of the difficulty are found to be psychological it can be treated with hypnosis and /or behaviour therapy.
    Breast Growth - 
    It is claimed by some clinicians that hypnosis and suggestion can be used to effect breast enlargement, though this may well turn out to be a storm in a D cup.
    Braid, James - 
    A British physician and surgeon (1795 – 1860), known as the father of modern hypnosis after proposing the first modern theory of the state and conducting a good deal of research. He first used the name hypnosis in ‘Neurypnology’ his book published in 1843. 
    Bruxism - 
    A habitual condition in which patients unconsciously grind their teeth, usually during sleep. This condition can become so severe that serious damage is done to teeth and jaws. Usually of emotional origin, typically due to repressed anger and feelings of resentment, this condition can be treated successfully with hypnosis.
    Bulimia Nervosa -
    Bulimia Nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by intense desire to binge which is followed by self induced vomiting. Physical damage is not as apparent as with Anorexia Nervosa but it can be equally psychologically harmful. Much ego strengthening will be required. This condition can be treated with hypnosis but a number of sessions will be required. 

    A Modern Hypnosis Dictionary:The Letter C

    Case History -
    Details of the patients life circumstances in general and specific particulars of his presenting problem. Usually taken before treatment commences it can provide important pointers to the cause and cure of the problem. Never underestimate the value of a detailed case history.
    Catalepsy - 
    A condition observed in some forms of mental illness and also a phenomenon obtainable by hypnosis, where a patients limb or limbs becomes rigid and can be placed in any position, where it will remain. 
    Catharsis - 
    This word literally means ‘purging’ and describes the process of releasing repressed or pent-up emotional energy. This is usually affected by ‘reliving’, re-experiencing, acting out or talking out the memories of causal events.
    Censor - 
    According to psychoanalysis this is a psychological ‘mechanism’ which acts as a kind of filter or barrier to prevent repressed material or impulses from coming into consciousness.
    Cephalagra - 
    The correct term for headache. So remember, the next time you take a day off work sick, you didn’t just have a headache….you had cephalagra!
    Charming - 
    Pre-Mesmer hypnosis, also animal hypnosis (re: snake charming etc)
    Chevreul’s Pendulum -
    A simple method of determining or increasing a patient’s suggestibility. A small pendulum is held over paper on which a cross (two intersecting lines) are drawn. Then the patient begins to swing the pendulum along one of the lines, while the hypnotist suggests that it will begin to gradually move from it’s path until it is swinging along the path of the other line.
    Claustrophobia - 
    Morbid fear of enclosed spaces
    Closure - 
    The completion of a psychological process. Developed in Gestalt psychology.
    Complex -
    A psychological matrix of related emotional material. Term originating with Jung.
    Compulsion -
    Where a patient feels an irresistible urge to carry out an act, whether a thought or a pattern of behaviour, even against his will. (re:compulsive behaviour). 
    Concentration -
    The fixing of attention in one place or on one thing.
    Conditioned Reflex - 
    Is where an action is carried out in response to a trigger because the action and the trigger (stimuli) have become associated (conditioned). Term originating with Ivan P. Pavlov.
    Classical Conditioning - 
    The process of associating a stimulus with a response.
    Conscience - 
    A persons moral censor which guides that persons conduct. Cannot be overridden with hypnosis.
    Contrasuggestibility -
    A curious tendency in some individuals (rare) to respond to a suggestion by acting out the opposite of it’s intention.
    Coprolalia - 
    Compulsion to speak obscenities
    Coprophobia - 
    Irrational excessive dread of Faeces.
    Coue, Emile - 
    Pioneer of auto-suggestion (1857 – 1926) and originator of the famous formula, "Day by day and in every way I am getting better and better".
    Counter Suggestion - 
    A suggestion given to neutralize a previous suggestion or belief.
    Critical Faculty -
    The ability to make a decision regarding the validity of a particular thing depends upon the exercise of the critical faculty. It is associated with the conscious mind and left hemisphere of the brain. Absence, of the critical faculty means that all ‘proposals’ are accepted as valid and as such is the temporary goal of hypnosis.
    Dreams are a good example of the state of the mind with the critical faculty in abeyance, as the most improbable things can take place in them but they seem perfectly realistic at the time.

    A Modern Hypnosis Dictionary:The Letter D

    Deepening -
    Once the trance state has been induced it can then be deepened. This usually takes the form of a simple count down from 10 to 1 (along with suitably relaxing suggestions), or perhaps some form of guided imagery, such as descending a long flight of stairs. 
    Defence Mechanism -
    Usually associated with the ‘censor’ it is a psychological strategy to prevent painful, repressed or unpleasant material from coming to consciousness, where it might have to be faced and dealt with.
    Dehypnotization -
    Bringing the hypnotic state to an end and waking the patient. Usually arranged to happen at a particular signal, such as the count from one to five. Always remember to remove or nulify suggestions that you do not intend to remain. 
    Demophobia - 
    Excessive fear of crowds
    Dental Hypnosis -
    Typically hypnosis used to minimize the pain of dental surgery or to overcome a patients morbid fear of dentistry.
    Depersonalization -
    A psychological condition common to many mental illnesses but one which can also be brought about in deep hypnosis when amnesia robs the patient of his immediate personal identity. 
    Depression - 
    An extended feeling of hopelessness and inadequacy, lowness of mood. Clinical depression (endogenous) is difficult to treat with hypnosis and should only be undertaken with medical supervision. Reactive depression (exogenous depression due to a particular cause, such as losing employment or a loved one) can be treated with hypnosis but great care must still be taken and the patient should be advised to visit his doctor first.
    Dermatosis - 
    The family of skin diseases. Can have organic and allergic causes but often are due to emotional conflicts and false learnings, in which instance they can respond well to hypnotherapy.
    Desensitization -
    Desensitization (systematic) is a theraputic method developed in Behaviour Therapy (by Joseph Wolpe) where by the patient is gradually exposed to the source of his anxiety while at the same time engaging in anxiety inhibiting behaviour, such as deep muscle relaxation. Thereby affecting deconditioning.
    Hypnosis can be combined to good effect with systematic desensitization to form the therapy of Hypno-desesitization. 
    Diagnosis - 
    The process of discerning the nature of an ailment.
    Direct Suggestion -
    An openly stated hypnotic command, direct, authoritative and without guile. It’s meaning can be taken at face value. In contrast to indirect suggestion.
    Dissociation - 
    The seperation of one part of the mind from the other part or parts. Thought to be at the root of many mental illnesses (multiple personalities for example) but is also a phenomenon readily available in hypnosis and active imagination techniques, where it can be used theraputically. Many problems respond to the communication with and ‘re-integration’ of split off parts.
    Dominant Effect (The Law of) -
    Simply states that a strong emotion will always displace a weaker one (the rule being that only one emotional state can exist in experience at any one time). Try to evoke and connect emotion to your suggestions and they will be much more effective. Also, to move a feeling or emotion out of experience evoke a stronger one. Its difficult to feel anxious when you are angry or happy.

    A Modern Hypnosis Dictionary:The Letter E

    Echolalia -
    Also known as echophrasia. Where the hypnotized subject automatically repeats the words of the hypnotist (even when the words make no sense or are in a foreign language) in parrot fashion.
    Ego -
    Freud proposed the Ego as part of the mind in direct interface with reality, balancing the urges of the Id and the demands of the Super-Ego. More commonly accepted to mean the individuals sense of self.
    Egocentricity -
    Acting as if the world revolves around the self and the self is the centre of the world.
    Eidetic -
    Refers to eidetic memory and eidetic imagery. Commonly known as photographic memory. Can be induced in deep hypnosis, to the point where (with fantasy) it becomes hallucination.
    Engram -
    The name given to the idea that memory is stored ‘traces’ or ‘images’ in the brain. Thus memories are stores in engrams.
    Esdaile, James - 
    Early pioneer of modern hypnosis (Edinburgh, Great Britain 1808 – 1859) performed major surgery using only hypnosis for anaesthetic. 
    Eye Fixation - 
    Simply having the subject fix their gaze on a point (to narrow and focus their attention).
    Eye Closure - 
    The point in hypnotic induction when the subjects can no longer keep their eyes open. At this point the hypnotist has achieved eye closure.
    Eyelid Catalepsy - 
    A good test of receptivity to suggestion and eyelid relaxation. The subject is told after eye closure that their eyelids are so relaxed that they cannot open them (sometimes the subject is also asked to look upwards as if at a point on their forehead). When this is shown to be the case, eyelid catalepsy has been achieved.
    Enuresis -
    Involuntary urination. Noctural enuresis is involuntary urination at night, commonly known as bed wetting. Can be treated with hypnosis to good effect.
    Epinosic - 
    The psychoanalytical term for secondary gain. 
    Erethism -
    Where a part of the body becomes extremely sensetive, can have organic causes or can be induced by in hypnosis.
    Erotophobia - 
    Irrational fear of sexual stimuli /arousal.
    Expectation -
    Expectation is an important factor to take into account before beginning hypnosis.
    If the patient expects to be successfully hypnotized he probably will be. Also in pre-induction talks always take the time to ensure patients have realistic idea of what the hypnotic state will be like and what the likely outcome of it will be.
    Extinction - 
    The term given to the process of deconditioning a reflex, more commonly known as breaking a habit. The condition is said to be made extinct.
    Extravert - 
    A term originally coined by C.G.Jung which has passed into popular parlance to describe an outward going personality type. As opposed to Introvert.

    A Modern Hypnosis Dictionary:The Letter F

    Fascination -
    The process of bringing about a hypnotic state by fixing the gaze on a point (typically a small shiny object). Also animal hypnosis.
    Fight or Flight -
    This is not a threat to get a nervous passenger onto an aeroplane. The fight or flight response represents the two basic choices (supervised by the autonomic nervous system) that we have in response to an alarming development. These instinctive choices were once necessary to our survival in an early predatory environment but are largely obsolete in the modern civilized world. They remain as options that can rarely be taken and severe stress can result from these natural impulses being thwarted. 
    Filter Theory -
    The theory that the hypnotic state is a result of the mind’s attention becoming more and more selective and narrow in it’s focus. Whether this is fixation on an external object, the sound of the therapist’s voice or fixation on the process of relaxation, the subject can eventually filter out almost everything – including the critical faculty. The mind becomes absorbed in the ‘tension’ of attention.
    Fixation - 
    In hypnosis, focusing of the attention at a singular point. In psychoanalysis, the arresting of development at a particular point.
    Free Association -
    Technique originating in psychoanalysis which is now commonly used in many therapies where the intention is to arrive at memories and ideas that are not available to conscious recollection. Stimulus words are given to which the patient responds with the first word that is evoked. Sometimes used in Hypno-analysis.
    Fractionation -
    In hypnosis, this is a method of induction (Vogt’s fractionation method) where the subject is partially relaxed then roused and asked to recount the sensations experienced. Then the hypnosis/relaxation continues again, often with the therapist ‘feeding back’ the recounted experience and leading the patient still deeper. The patient is then roused again and his experiences sought, before the hypnosis resumes once again. The process continues until a deep trance state is obtained. 
    Freud, Sigmund -
    Born in Morovia (1856 – 1939), he studied and spent most of his life in Vienna.
    Trained with the emminent neurologist J. M. Charcot and experimented with hypnosis. Freud established the practice of psychoanalysis and spent the rest of his life contributing to it’s theory. 
    Frigidity -
    Lack of sexual desire in a woman. Can have organic or psychological origin. 
    Functional disorders -
    Thes are problems which affect the physical body but have a psychological origin.
    Fusion -
    In hypnotic practice this is the process of joining two or more normally disparate concepts, feelings or even memories of experience to form a new experience.
    For a simple example – if a patient feels anxiety at the sight of a cat but can clearly remember the feeling of happiness at receiving a special gift then ideo-fusion can be used in hypnosis to connect the image of a cat to the feeling of pleasure at receiving a gift, by having the patient summon both image and sensation at the same time.

    A Modern Hypnosis Dictionary:The Letter G

    Glove Anaesthesia - 
    Can occur as a sympton of some mental illnesses (where normal sensation can normally be restored by hypnosis) but can also be induced with hypnosis. It is typically used as a method of enabling patients to ease their own painful symptoms. The patient is taught how to induce glove anaesthesia (loss of sensation in the hand) in self hypnosis and this ‘anaesthesia’ is then transfered to other parts of the body that require it. See also Glove Analgesia. 
    Group Hypnosis - 
    Referres to the effect percieved that hypnosis of people in large groups often results in greater depth of success, perhaps because the members of the group ‘feedback’ from each other. Mass hypnosis is a recognized phenomenon. Not normally used  in therapy, which needs to be tailored to specific individuals but is often used at religious and political gatherings to get simple ideas accepted at the group level. 
    Galvanometer -
    A device which measures the galvanic skin response. This response is a small change of electrical conductivity of the skin, due in part to the presence of stress. 
    Used as the basis of lie detection equipment it is used by some hypno-analysts to detect areas of conflict and stress as patients recount their personal history.
    Generalization -
    A psychological process often uncovered by hypnosis, at the root of many phobias and neuroses. It is part of the normal learning function but can lead to error due to unchecked extrapolation. As a simple example – you are tormented as a child by a bully with red hair, which leads to the unconscious generalization that all persons with red hair are tormentors. Thus you might feel anxiety in the presence of a red haired person, even if you have not met them before. It can develop even further as the colour red itself develops into a stimulus for anxiety even though it is no longer connected to a person but to some other object. 
    Glossolalia -
    Where a person ‘babbles’ or speaks in some unknown tongue, usually while believing perfect sense is being made. Can be a symptom of religious hysteria and mental disorder but can also be made to occour by suggestion in deep hypnosis.
    Gnosis - 
    From the Greek word for knowledge. In hypnotherapy it referres to the uncovering of piece of information or personal experience which enables a dynamic re-evaluation, leading to rapid improvement, or cessation of presenting problems. Axial information.
    Gynophobia - 
    Irrational morbid fear of women

    A Modern Hypnosis Dictionary:The Letter H

    Hallucination -
    A hallucination can be described as an experience of one or more senses which occurs without an external stimulation. In other words the cause of the sensory activation is internal and is common in psychosis and drug misuse. The phenomenon can be evoked in the deeper states of hypnosis and also with direct electrical stimulation of the brain. Positive hallucination describes the process of experiencing something that is not actually present. Negative hallucination describes the process of not experiencing something that is present.
    Hand Clasp Test -
    This test of susceptibility is common in stage hypnosis but little used in therapy. Quite simply the subject is asked to clasp his hands together by interlocking the fingers. The hypnotist might then make suggestions that the hands are sticking together, tighter and tighter. Eventually the subject is told flatly that his hands are locked together and he will not be able to separate them until the hypnotist gives that instruction. If the subject is unable to part his hands, or has some difficulty in this act, he is judged to be susceptible to hypnotic suggestion at that time.
    Hematophobia -
    Morbid fear of the sight of blood.
    Hetero-Hypnosis -
    This is simply the process of a hypnotist hypnotizing a subject or subjects, as opposed to self-hypnosis. 
    Hidden Observer -
    An occasional phenomenon experienced in hypnosis in which a part of the mind seems to watch the proceedings in a detached and passive way, even though the rest of the body and personallity might be engaged in carrying out some hypnotic suggestion.
    Homophobia -
    Excessive fear of homosexuals.
    Hyperaesthesia -
    Vivification of the senses. Can be achieved with hypnosis.
    Hypermnesia -
    Where amnesia is the partial or total inability to recall memories, hypermnesia is the opposite, an increase of the ability to remember.
    Hypersuggestibility -
    A phenomenon of deep hypnosis characterized by the increase of suggestibility.
    Hypnogogic -
    Brief hypnoidal state passed through on the way to natural sleep.
    Hypnoanalysis -
    The process of examining the personal history of a patient using regression, which is facilitated by hypnosis.
    Hypnogenic -
    Describes something which produces the hypnotic state.
    Hypnoidal -
    A state characteristic of the light hypnotic state.
    Hypnoplasty -
    Similar to automatic writing under hypnosis but clay or plastacene is used by the patient to make images or objects.
    Hypnopompic -
    Brief hypnoidal state passed through on the way from natural sleep to wakefulness
    Hypnosis -
    The process of obtaining: A special condition of co-operation, acceptance and partial critical abeyance brought about through a combination of induction, motivation, expectation and trust. Results in a hypnotic state. 
    Hypnotic -
    As relating to the process of obtaining a hypnotic state.
    Hypnotic Trance -
    See ‘Trance‘.
    Hypnotherapy -
    The process of carrying out therapy using hypnosis.
    Hypochondria -
    Excessive attention to the possibility of ill health, often manifesting in the belief that it is immanent or present.

    A Modern Hypnosis Dictionary:The Letter I

    Iatrogenic - 
    Refers to neurotic problems caused in patients unintentially during consultation, by words (badly phrased suggestions for example) or actions.
    Ideomotor Response - 
    Literally a physical response to an idea. Used in hypnosis for signaling. Typically the index fingers of each hand are designated ‘yes’ and ‘no’ values and the control of these fingers is passed to the hypnotized patient’s subconscious mind, which then responds to questions by moving the ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ finger.
    Implosion Therapy -
    Also known as flooding, a practice originating with behaviour therapy. The patient is exposed to the source of anxiety (for example) without aversive consequences, until the fear eventually subsides.
    Impotence -
    Sexual impotence is the inability of the male to have an erection. Where this problem has a psychological origin it can be treated successfully with hypnosis.
    Indirect Suggestions -
    Also known as permissive suggestion. Referres to the phrasing of suggestions in such a way as to seem to give a choice to the patient as to how he reacts. Special attention is given to the placing of stress on certain words. For example "…If in a few moments time you would find a particular sensation in some part of your body, that would be good, a pleasant sensation, perhaps a gentle warmth or a feeling of relaxed heaviness…" Here it is indirectly suggested that the patient will find an internal sensation that will be either gentle warmth or relaxed heaviness, or perhaps both. As opposed to Direct (Authoritarian) Suggestion.
    Induction -
    Hypnotic induction describes the process used in the transition of the subject from normal waking consciousness into the ‘hypnotic state’.
    Insomnia - 
    Sleeplessness, usually due to psychological reasons (stress/anxiety/repressed emotion). Responds well to treatment by hypnotherapy.
    Introvert -
    A term originally coined by C.G.Jung which has passed into popular parlance to
    describe an inwardly focused personality type. As opposed to Extrovert. 

    A Modern Hypnosis Dictionary:The Letter J

    James, William -
    An American (1842 – 1910), One of the fathers of psychology. Author of  ‘The principles of Psychology’ which helped to establish psychology as a science and influence many of the seminal thinkers of that period.
    Janet, Pierre - 
    French psychiatrist (1859 – 1947), Studied hypnosis with J. M. Charcot and eventually proposed the ‘Theory of Dissociation’, to account for many psychological problems and also the nature of hypnosis itself.
    Jehovah Complex -
    Megalomania. Identification with God or supreme being.
    Jung, Carl Gustav -
    Swiss psychiatrist (1875 -1961), collaborated with Sigmund Freud (1907 – 1912) to expand the theory of psychoanalysis. In 1912 he broke from Freud to develop his own significant branch of psychoanalysis called Analytical Psychology. 

    A Modern Hypnosis Dictionary:The Letter K

    Kent-Rosanoff List -
    This is a list of words for use in free association which the authors have thoroughly tested and analysed, especially  the frequency of various responses. Thus the results of a free association session with the words on the list can be compared against previous results (taken from people in different known psychological states). Not normally used in hypnotherapy but may have some application in hypnoanalysis.
    Kinaesthetic Memory - 
    Physical memory, of bodily states, positions, movements and sensations. Used frequently in hypnosis, especially during induction when bodily states are evoked by suggestion.
    Kleptomania - 
    A kleptomaniac experiences an obsessive compulsion to steal. 
    Korsakoff’s Syndrome - 
    Refers to the impairment of memory, usually due to alchohol abuse.

    A Modern Hypnosis Dictionary:The Letter L

    Lachrymal Glands -
    The small glands which are responsible for tear production. They often become active as hypnosis deepens.
    Lalophobia -
    The irrational fear of speaking.
    Latent Time -
    The time between stimulus and response. A period often extended as hypnosis deepens.
    Lethargy -
    Early term coined by J. M. Charcot for the light or early stage of hypnosis.
    Levitation -
    Where a limb is caused to rise by suggestion. Often used in hypnotic induction and deepening. Useful where the ensuing therapy employs partial dissociation or glove anaesthesia.
    Liminal -
    The threshold. 
    Liminal Sensitivity -
    The threshold of sensation. The minimum stimulus required to cause sensation.
    Hence, Subliminal – beneath the threshold of sensation.
    Locus of Control -
    The place where a person experiences the controlling influence in their life to emanate from. A person with an internal locus of control feels that they control their life from within themselves and are responsible for all things that happen to them. A person with an external locus of control feels that their life is governed by forces external to them over which they have no real influence.
    Lucid Dream -
    A dream in which the participant realizes that they are dreaming. Can be evoked by post hypnotic suggestion. 

    A Modern Hypnosis Dictionary:The Letter M

    Mania -
    An energetic state of mental imbalance, characterized by high excitement.
    Manic-depressive -
    A mental disorder (psychosis) characterized by alternating states of high excitement followed by periods of depression. Now called bipolar depression.
    Masochism -
    Where pleasure is derived (usually sexual gratification) from the experience of pain or cruelty.
    Mass Hypnosis -
    Where a large group of people simultaneously experience a state of heightened suggestibility and become open to the experience of hypnotic phenomenon. 
    Massed Practice -
    A technique borrowed from behaviour therapy, where a patient is encouraged, either in or out of hypnosis, to purposefully repeat his symptom/s over and over. 
    A typical use might be for a facial tick. The unconscious stimulus becomes exhausted (extinct) by the conscious repetition.
    Megalomania -
    Extreme self importance, self valuation. God complex.
    Memory Manipulation -
    Under hypnosis memories can be enhanced, removed or even changed. This facility of hypnosis is often used in therapy.
    Mesmer, Franz Anton -
    Born in Switzerland (1734 – 1815), became famous / notorious in Vienna and Paris by his making of cures using ‘animal magnetism’ ( the forerunner of today’s hypnosis). Mesmer theorized that a subtle fluid permeated space and gathered in living things and this fluid (which was responsible for health) could be passed from one being to another, either directly or through the use of charged objects. He believed he used this fluid to magnetized patients and cure them. His theory was investigated by the scientific minds of the day (including Benjamin Franklin) and discredited. This caused the practice to fall from fashion. Fortunately many cures had been recorded and so investigation of his methods continued discretely in many countries. This research ultimately led to the understanding of the laws of suggestion and the acceptance of hypnosis as a natural mental state.
    Mesmerism -
    The type of ‘hypnosis’ that was practised by Mesmer and his followers. Typically theatrical and involving the use of ‘hypnotic passes’, where the hands are are moved along the shape of the body as if combing some invisible medium. Still practised today in eastern countries and in parts of Russia. Making something of a revival in some parts of America, mainly due to immigrants bringing these skills with them and the growing ‘new age’ belief in spiritual healing.
    Metaphor -
    From the word amphora, which is a vessel designed to carry or hold something, a  metaphor is likewise an image, phrase or story with an obvious meaning but which carries within it a secondary meaning. Metaphors are used widely in hypnotherapy to pass suggestions to the subconscious mind while bypassing or occupying critical faculties. Typically a short phrase or story that has more than one meaning and at least one of the inherent meanings carries a hypnotic suggestion. A hypnotic metaphor is like a Trojan Horse.
    Migraine -
    A severe headache, often accompanied by feelings of nausea. Often preceded by a warning ‘aura’. Cases of recurring migraine can be treated most successfully with hypnosis. Caution must be exercised to ensure that the patient has had a thorough check up with a qualified medical practitioner first, in order to eliminate any possible organic origin.
    Monoideism -
    Describes a state of fixation on a single thought or topic. Encountered in hypnosis as concentration increases. Term coined by James Braid.
    Mysophobia -
    Excessive fear of dirt.
    Mythomania -
    Imaginary rationalization of acts and exaggerations on suggested themes, often encountered in deep hypnosis.

    A Modern Hypnosis Dictionary:The Letter N

    Nancy School - 
    Early French school of psychotherapy founded in 1866 by A. A. Liebeault (in the city of Nancy). Hypnosis played a great part in the treatment methodology and much research was conducted into this subject, particularly by H. M. Bernhiem.
    Necrophobia -
    Abnormal fear of death.
    Negative Hallucination -
    Not seeing something that is actually there. Often used in stage hypnosis.
    Negativism -
    A form of resistance to suggestions. Can be so strong that the opposite course of action to the one suggested is taken, (active negativism). Simply refusing to accept suggestions is termed ‘passive negativism’.
    Nervous Sleep -
    The term coined by J.Braid to describe hypnosis.
    Neurodermatitis -
    Skin inflammations that have a psychogenic causation. 
    Neurosis -
    A functional problem of entirely psychogenic origin, often manifesting as maladaptive habit/s. Usually treatable by hypnotherapy.
    Nightmare -
    A dream that arouses great fear and alarm. 
    Noctambulism -
    Nocturnal Enuresis -
    Involuntary urination at night. Bedwetting. Common in children up to 4-5 years of age and is usually grown out of. Treatable with hypnosis after this time.
    Nosophobia - 
    Excessive fear of disease.
    Nyctophobia - 
    Irrational fear of the night, or darkness.

    A Modern Hypnosis Dictionary:The Letter O

    Obsession -
    A persistently recurring idea, compelling and difficult to put out of mind.
    Obsessive Compulsive -
    In obsessive compulsive neurosis the patient feels compelled to carry out the persistently recurring idea. This can take many forms, such as excessive hand washing (sometimes the patient feeling the need to wash hands over 100 times per day) or excessive checking of door locks or clothing etc. Treatable with hypnosis.
    Oneirosis -
    An early term for a stage of light hypnosis, similar to hypnogogic state and characterized by visual imagery. From the Greek word oneiros, meaning dreams.
    Operator -
    A name occasionally given to the hypnotist.
    Oedipus Complex - 
    A term coined by Sigmund Freud (from a Greek Myth) to describe the complex formed in young males through a form of sexual attraction to the mother, causing jealousy of the father and resulting in a feeling of conflict and guilt. In the Greek myth Oedipus killed his father and unknowingly married his mother. 
    Onomatomania -
    Obsession with words, especially the sound of words. Sometimes attaching personal meanings to words apart from their usual definition.
    One Trial Learning -
    A single occurrence or event that has such a powerful impact on the individual that it modifies their behaviour from then onwards. For example, a person becoming violently ill through drinking too much whisky might be unable thereafter to drink whisky again.
    Operant Conditioning -
    A form of learning identified in Behaviourism (B. F. Skinner) in which a person’s behaviour (or any animal’s for that matter) is modified by positive or negative reinforcement (ie., praise or punishment).
    Orgasmaphobia -
    Irrational fear of orgasm. Typically that the experience would be so intense it would cause the sufferer to expire.
    Overcompensation -
    Conscious or unconscious behaviour designed to make amends for (or disguise) some (real or imagined) short coming. 

    A Modern Hypnosis Dictionary:The Letter P
    List of Phobia’s

    Painless Surgery -
    It is quite possible to undergo surgery using hypnosis as the only anaesthetic.
    Paradoxical Sleep -
    Another name for REM (rapid eye movement) sleep.
    Paramnesia -
    Distorted memories rather than lost memories (as with amnesia).
    Paranoia -
    Serious mental disorder, typified by absorption in delusions. No usually amenable to treatment with hypnosis.
    Pathophobia - 
    Excessive fear of suffering through illness.
    Pavlov, Ivan P -
    Russian Physiologist, (1849 – 1936) Won a Nobel Prize in 1904 for his work on the digestion system. Became well known for his experiments into conditioning.
    Peccatophobia -
    Morbid fear of committing a sin.
    Peripheral Nervous System -
    That part of the total nervous system which connects the sensory systems of the body to the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).
    Phobia -
    An intense fear or morbid dread. Treatable with hypnosis.
    Perls, Fritz -
    Born in Germany. Originally a psychoanalyst, he went on to develop Gestalt Therapy.
    Phonophobia -
    Irrational fear of speaking aloud.
    Photoma -
    Optical hallucination, sparks or points of light. Sometimes reported in hypnosis.
    Photophobia -
    Dread of strong light, ie., sunlight.
    Placebo -
    A placebo is usually a medical prescription given with the idea of producing beneficial results by utilizing the patient’s belief that he has been given useful medicine. The placebo does not have any medical potency of a chemical nature and relies for it’s effect on suggestion. It is sometimes given as part of an experiment to determine the effectiveness of a new drug, the group given the placebo being the control. It is recognized by medical authorities that as much as 30% of the effectiveness of any particular drug is due to the placebo effect.
    Post Hypnotic -
    Literally, after hypnosis. Post hypnotic suggestions for example, are suggestions given by the hypnotist to the subject to be carried out later, after the hypnotic session has been terminated.
    Postural Sway Test -
    A simple test of hypnotic susceptibility. The subject is asked to stand erect with feet together and eyes closed. He is then asked to recall a time as a child when he swung back and forth on a swing. If the subject has good powers of imagination and concentration he will begin to swing perceptibly back an forth. 
    Prestige -
    Prestige is valuable to a hypnotist and is the the esteem with with a patient holds his abilities. The hypnotist should always seek to maintain a smart, professional image in order to encourage and maintain a sense of prestige. 
    Psoriasis -
    A form of psychodermatosis characterized by red scaly patches. Treatable with hypnosis.
    Psychoanalysis -
    Developed by Sigmund Freud and his followers. Based on the idea that neurotic and maladaptive behaviour is caused by emotional and instinctive energies that become repressed in the patients unconscious. Therapy takes place when these repressed elements are brought to consciousness and catharsis takes place. Usually involves an extensive case history being taken, along with dream analysis.
    Psychodrama - 
    A technique of working with a group devised originally by J. L. Moreno, in which members of the gathering ‘act out’ their problems as if in real life. 
    Psychogenic -
    Of psychological origin.
    Psychosomatic -
    Effects in the body originating in the mind.
    Psychosis -
    Originally coined to describe any mental illness. It now refers to a serious  mental illness which make it difficult for the patient to function normally within society. Re: psychotic.

    A Modern Hypnosis Dictionary:The Letter Q

    Quantum Therapy -
    You would normally expect to find the word quantum on the blackboard in a physics laboratory but it’s also forming a cutting edge concept in therapy. Advanced researchers like Dr Ernest Rossi are seeking to explore the postulates of chaos theory as they relate to the ’steady state’ theory of normal psychology.
    For example: 

    • The observer and the observed are one.
    • Reality is observation, there is no reality without observation.
    • Everything is composed of: Space, Mass, Energy and Time.
    • Nothing is fixed, everything interpenetrates everything.
    • Reality is a belief system.

    If "form is condensed emptiness" (Albert Einstein), then what is a thought?

    In quantum therapy (as it relates to hypnosis) the therapist seeks to expand the mind of the patient beyond the bounds of the habitual framework (context / matrix) which has enabled the problem to exist. Also the therapist realizes that ‘reality is observation’ and thus the patient has been maintaining ongoing symptoms by observing them at a conscious and unconscious level. This de-labelling process occurs when the patient suddenly sees things from an alternative point of view. 
    Typically this involves guided imagery and paradox to transform everything in the patients world view into energy and then expand that view point massively to de-personalize it. Momentary chaos ensues. Finally the patients view point is allowed to coalesce at a new point, with a different ‘point of view’. (TC)
    Quantum Psychology -
    Is a fusion of eastern philosophy, western psychology and quantum physics. 
    Questioning -
    The method of giving suggestions via the medium of structured questions. This takes advantage of latent affirmative response, ie., "Would you like to be more confident?" elicits a conscious and/or unconscious yes, which affirms the content of the suggestion at an unconscious level. While the straight forward, "You are going to feel more confident" may be denied by the immediate experience of the patient even though the critical faculty is diminished. (TC) 

    A Modern Hypnosis Dictionary:The Letter S

    Salpetriere School -
    Salpetriere school of hypnosis. A school of psychopathology operated by J. M. Charcot, who’s views on hypnosis influenced Sigmund Freud. Charcot believed that hypnosis was due to a form of hysteria. 
    Schizophrenia -
    A serious mental disorder which affects the sufferers ability to deal with reality. Usually ascribed to dissociation, splitting of consciousness.
    Script -
    In hypnosis this term is usually used to describe a pre-prepared induction or deepener. 
    Secondary Gain -
    Every cloud has a silver lining! Nobody really wants a problem but sometimes a problem can have a small advantage attached to it and it is this advantage that is described by the term secondary gain. For example, no-one wants a painful headache but it may have the secondary gain benefit of getting some attention. 
    Selective Amnesia -
    Inability to recall memories about a specific thing. Often used as a demonstration of hypnotic phenomena where a subject might be told to forget a number between one and five and then asked to count the fingers on his hand!
    Selective attention -
    The natural ability of people to select which incoming information they will consciously receive. We perceive much more than we realize but something within us decides what is important to notice. Normally an unconscious process it can be temporarily explored consciously. The manipulation of selective attention is thought to be important to achieving a hypnotic state. 
    Self Hypnosis -
    Where a person enters a hypnotic state under their own guidance, without using an external hypnotist. Also called auto-hypnosis.
    Signalling -
    Usually called ideo-motor response signalling (IMR). Where a small bodily movement is used for communication.
    Sitophobia -
    Irrational fear of food.
    Shyness -
    A feeling of unease when receiving attention from others. Often accompanied by blushing. Usually due to conditioning and quite treatable with hypnosis.
    Sleep Walking -
    Also called Somnambulism, see below.
    Somnambulism -
    Literally sleep walking. Usually occurs in children as a modification of natural dream sleep. The subject walks in the dream state and usually has no recollection of it after awakening. In hypnosis the term refers to a deep trance state in which  subjects can open their eyes and even perform quite complex tasks without breaking the state. Amnesia and hallucination are possible.
    State Dependent Memory -
    Refers to memories which are dependent upon the replication of certain physiological ‘contexts’ before they can be recalled. For example, an event that takes place while the subject is heavily intoxicated or in a state of high emotion might be forgotten upon return to normality and can be recalled only when the non ordinary state is re-experienced. To a certain extent all memory can be said to be state dependent but fortunately for most people ‘normal consciousness’ is a  steady state.
    Stress -
    Stress occurs in any organism provoked into making a survival decision or taking a survival action (be this fight or flight). So it can be seen that stress is not an unnatural phenomenon but actually a necessity of survival in much of the animal kingdom. This survival stress is usually short lived as the needed action (fight or flight) can be taken and the bodily state allowed to return to normal. The many chemicals needed to produce the stress state in the body and brain (to maximize functionality) can disperse. Alas, due to the complex nature of the human animal and human society the ‘primitive’ instincts to survival action are regularly triggered, but usually without the availability of a survival response. That is, although a person often comes under the impulse to fight or flee, either action is usually inappropriate. Thus stresses build up in the body and can lead to many kinds of dysfunction if not successfully controlled or dissipated.
    Subconscious -
    Mental processes that are not normally conscious, separate from consciousness. The word is often interchanged loosely with unconscious.
    Subliminal -
    This literally means – below the threshold of sensory awareness
    Suggestibility -
    Defines the extent to which a person will accept a proposal to be factual. 
    Suggestion -
    A proposal made to a person as fact, usually just before or during the hypnotic state. The purpose of which is usually to obtain a deeper hypnotic state, increase suggestibility or obtain some therapeutic change.

    A Modern Hypnosis Dictionary:The Letter T

    Tachycardia -
    Rapid heart beat
    Tactile induction -
    The method of inducing hypnosis by gently stroking the subject’s body, usually the forehead but can be almost any part of the body. Not often used in therapy these days, it has it’s roots in Mesmerism and animal hypnosis (trout tickling!).
    Taphophobia -
    Excessive dread of being buried alive.
    Thanatophobia -
    Morbid fear of death
    Tic -
    Involuntary muscle spasm, ‘twitch’, often facial and of psychogenic origin.
    Time Distortion -
    Typical hypnotic phenomenon, usually time appearing to have passed more quickly than usual but also refers to time appearing to pass slower than usual.
    Tinnitus -
    A condition where the sufferer hears or appears to hear noises, typically ringing in the ears. Can be distressing and is amenable to hypnosis even though it may have physiological or psychological origins. Usually the ’selective’ hearing process has to be de-tuned.
    Toxophobia -
    Excessive fear of being poisoned.
    Trance -
    A big word in hypnosis which is not too easy to define! This is exacerbated by the fact that trance is associated with a wide range of ill defined phenomena ranging from drug abuse to spirituality to occultism. Never the less ‘trance’ as it applies to hypnosis is held to be a natural state which occurs easily (and frequently) to a person when their attention is, on the one hand, directed inward – and away from external sensory experience and on the other hand, narrowed and focused, usually on the hypnotist’s voice. The hypnotic trance seems to have much in common with the dream state but without the usual unconsciousness. The deeper the hypnotic trance state the closer this comparison becomes, especially in regards to spontaneous amnesia and loss of criticality. Trance is subjective and difficult to measure but experienced hypnotist’s know to look for certain physical signs to gauge the onset and depth of the state. For example you can observe:

    • Physical stillness
    • Change of breathing
    • Pallid / waxen complextion
    • Gradual postural slumping
    • Increased body temperature
    • REM type eye movements
    • Fluttering eyelids
    • Swallowing / gulping
    • Increased lachrymation
    • Redness around the eyes

    Trance induction -
    The process of bringing about a ‘hypnotic’ state, either in oneself (self hypnosis)
    or in another (hetero hypnosis).
    Transference -
    A word that has come to us from psychoanalysis and refers to the way that patients sometimes ‘project’ unconscious associations onto the therapist. For example, patients may come to project emotional attachments that they cannot feel for a parent onto the therapist. Usually only a problem when therapy it protracted.
    Trauma -
    Shock to the person, either physical or psychological or both. Can have effects which endure beyond the immediate healing process.

    A Modern Hypnosis Dictionary:The Letter U

    Unconditioned Response -
    An original or normal reflex to a stimulus, as opposed to a conditioned response which is learned behaviour. A dog will normally salivate when it sees food and so this is an unconditioned response but with training the dog can be made to salivate in response to a bell ringing, this is a conditioned response.
    Unconscious Mind -
    The unconscious mind is a collective term which covers all the mental processes that are operating outside of immediate consciousness awareness. This has been likened to the iceberg metaphor where consciousness is represented by the one seventh of the berg which stands above the waterline. The seven eighth’s of the berg below the waterline representing the unconscious mind. Another analogy is the eating process, where eating represents the conscious processes while digestion, assimilation are unconscious. There are areas where conscious and  unconscious processes over lap. Breathing is such an example: most of the time we are unaware (unconscious) of our breathing, especially during sleep, but it is possible to consciously intercede and modify our breathing patterns. So it can be seen that we have unconscious processes that are so ‘deep’ that we are never consciously aware of them, while other unconscious processes are only unconscious because they are not ‘in’ consciousness, or temporarily forgotten.

    A good example of an unconscious process, as something that continues even though we are no longer consciously aware of it, is afforded by the memory.
    You will no doubt have had the experience of trying to remember a particular name or fact but found that you were unable to do so. So you continue about your normal affairs and might think, or be consciously aware, of many other things when the name or fact suddenly ‘pops’ into your mind (consciousness), proving that a process has taken place (unconscious search) beyond your conscious awareness (unconscious). 

    It is not clear which faculty decides whether a process will be unconscious or consciously available to us but it does seem that a ‘need to know’ rule applies. Processes that we no longer need to know about (they are not a danger to us, or we have become so conditioned to them that the process can be carried out unconsciously) do gradually pass into the unconscious. Yet it seems that some non conscious faculty, or element is always vigilant. This is evident at a large gathering where you are struggling to make yourself heard and all you might consciously hear is a babble of background noise from the crowd, but if someone mentions your name you will suddenly become very conscious of it. Likewise a mother (until she has become conditioned otherwise) will awaken from deep sleep if her baby murmurs or moves.

    Perhaps the most important fact from a psychological / hypnotheraputic point of view is that the unconscious mind is the repository of memory. Thus therapy is usually a matter of investigating or modifying or bringing into consciousness some causal dynamic (usually trauma or false learning) which has become buried in the unconscious mind. 
    Psychoanalytic theory posits that there is some form of psychic filter which keeps ‘unfacable’ memories connected with unpleasant events away from consciousness (repressed), hence the difficulty involved in recovering them. 
    It may be that there is no such ‘filter’ but repression is simply a continuation of the minds natural process of ‘deconditioning’ memories that are not often used. If you require a particular fact (memory) every day it will become conditioned to appearing in consciousness and will be readily available for recall. In other words it is valued as important. A traumatic event is unpleasant an unless repeatedly bringing it to consciousness brings benefits it will naturally be ‘forgotten’ or deconditioned from consciousness. 
    Then there is the ’state dependent’ theory, that works on the theory that memories do not exist in isolation but are a composite of external and internal states. With this theory, memories are recoverable while the individual is in, or near to, the external or internal state that they were in during the original learning experience. As an extreme example a person who was heavily intoxicated the previous night might have no memory of events that took place then, but if the individual returns to the intoxicated state them the memories can become available. Similarly dreams are easily forgotten upon awakening (because the state has changed from sleep to wakefulness) and a way to retrieve them is to return the body to the exact position it was in on awakening. From this theory it can be seen that memories might not actually be screened by a filter but may be unavailable because of the difference between the physical and mental state at the present moment and the time at which the event occurred.

    Is there a simpler answer?
    The unconscious could be said to be everything that we are, but are not aware of.


    A Modern Hypnosis Dictionary:The Letter V

    Vaginismus -
    Involuntary contraction of the muscles of the vagina, usually of psychogenic causation. Responds well to hypnoanalysis and hypnosis. 
    Visualization -
    Literally, the process of creating images with the imagination. Very useful for goal achievement and artificial experience through rehearsal.
    Visual Predilection -
    It became recognized in the psychological research of the 1950’s that unconscious eye movements often gave evidence of categories of mental processes or neurological activities. Studies of these findings by Richard Bandler and John Grinder eventually developed to become part of the technical knowledge of Neuro – linguistic Programming (NLP). It was recognized that people generally fall into three groups of cognitive emphasis, visual – auditory – kinaesthetic. That is, some people’s mental experience is largely visual, others auditory, others kinaesthetic. These different types may be recognized by observing eye cues in response to questions.

    A Modern Hypnosis Dictionary:The Letter W

    Waking Hypnosis -
    A state of rapport which allows suggestions to be effectively given to the subject, without the need for formal trance induction.

    A Modern Hypnosis Dictionary:The Letter Y

    Yes Set -
    Refers to an technique outlined by M. Erickson where the conversation between the therapist and patient is intentionally structured in such a way that the patient must respond with the word "yes" (in other words obtaining a positive rather than a negative response). This sets a positive mood for interaction and begins the re-framing process.

    It is also possible to use the momentum of the repetitive response to have someone agree to something without full consideration. Sales people often utilise this technique by asking a series of innocuous questions for which the answer can only be "yes" followed quickly a line such as "so you want to buy this then?" When the unwary will often answer "yes" without due thought. 

    Congratulations on making it this far.  Wow If you want to learn hypnosis I invite you to check out my hypnosis courses.

    If you are looking for hypnotherapy in London you deserve to see a free video, about how it can help you go here:


    I would like to thank my first ever hypnosis coach for this post, Malcolm Drinan.

    NLP Course London, 5 Fundamental Principles of Practitioner

    The presuppositions are the central principles central of NLP; they are its guiding philosophy, its ‘beliefs’. These principles are not claimed to be true or universal.

    You do not have to believe they are true. They are called presuppositions because you pre-suppose them to be true and then act as if they were. You then discover what happens.

     If you like the results then continue to act as if they are true. They form a set of ethical principles for life.

    1.    People respond to their experience, not to reality itself.
    We do not know what reality is. Our senses, beliefs, and past experience give us a map of the world from which to operate.

    A map can never be exactly accurate; otherwise it would be the same as the ground it covers.

    We do not know the territory, so for us, the map is the territory. Some maps are better than others for finding your way around. We navigate life like a ship through a dangerous area of sea; as long as the map shows the main hazards, we will be fine.

    When maps are faulty and do not show the dangers, then we are in danger of running aground.

    NLP is the art of changing these maps, so we have greater freedom of action. Recognise that each person’s ‘truth’ is true for them even if it differs from your ‘truth’ – since our internal version of reality is just that – a ‘version’ of reality. Discover the other person’s perceptions before you begin to influence them. (‘Meet people in their own unique model of the world’)


    2.    Having a choice is better than not having a choice.

    Always try to have a map for yourself that gives you the widest and richest number of choices.

    Act always to increase choice. The more choices you have, the freer you are, the more influence you have and the more likely you are to achieve your outcomes.

    Enhance your behavioural and attitudinal flexibility. (‘In any interaction the person with the greatest behavioural flexibility has most influence on the outcome’)

    Act as if there is a solution to every problem. Recognise that in any situation a person is making the best choice with the resources which they currently perceive as being available to them.


    3.    People make the best choice they can at the time.

    A person always makes the best choice they can, given their map of the world. The choice may be self-defeating, bizarre or evil, but for them, it seems the best way forward.

    Give them a better choice in their map of the world and they will take it. Even better give them a superior map with more choices in it.


    4.    People work perfectly.

    No one is wrong or broken. They are carrying out their strategies perfectly, but the strategies may be poorly designed and ineffective.

    Find out how you and others do what they do so their strategy can be changed to something more useful and desirable.


    5.    All actions have a purpose.

    Our actions are not random; we are always trying to achieve something, although we may not be aware of what that is. Human behaviour has a structure.

    Dont confuse NLP with Magic that is an amazing trick.

    What do you think this is NLP Swish or Magic?

    >>Hypnosis course

    Trance and inducing trance, how does it wor

    How does verbal hypnosis work?

    If you can change your mind, you can change your life. What you believe creates the actual fact. The greatest revolution of my generation is the discovery that individuals, by changing their inner attitudes of mind, can change the outer aspects of their lives.

    William James, 1897 When a person reads or hears a word, their unconscious mind sorts through the internal references they have for that word in order to make meaning of it.

    The unconscious does this very quickly; so quickly in fact that we’re usually not aware of the process taking place. For example, take the sentence:

    The tree swayed in the breeze. In order to make sense of this sentence, you must have an internal reference for tree, breeze, and swayed. If the sentence made sense to you, then you probably weren’t even aware of the search taking place. You may even find that you can gather information about your internal reference (E.g. by asking yourself

    “What colour is the tree?”) The following sentence may be trickier: Wem polf bagglimed aj riq hoojar Most English-speakers don’t have an internal reference for these words –

    “Your search has returned no matches”, to quote my favourite search engine. The underlying theme is that your unconscious mind can hear and interpret things differently than your conscious mind.

    Your unconscious mind looks for patterns whilst the conscious mind listens to the words. In hypnosis you are almost doing a magic trick by keeping the conscious mind occupied whilst you are speaking directly to the client’s unconscious processes.

    This principle of internal searches is the basis of how verbal hypnosis works, and it’s an important part of how Erickson got the amazing results he did. In the 1970s, Richard Bandler and John Grinder spent eleven months modelling him. One of their outputs was

    “The Milton Model”, a kind of ‘how-to’ guide for using language to get the same kinds of results (linguistically) as Erickson. Milton Erickson used language systematically in his hypnotic work, often in unusual ways. These patterns were first described by Richard Bandler and John Grinder in their book Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H. Erickson, M. D. Vol. I. The preparation for trance 1. Don’t expect to feel hypnotised 2. Do expect to feel relaxed 3. You ARE in control 4. Trance is about learning how to go into trance.

    >>>London hypnotherapy one on one personal session

    How does hypnosis is a question that is best answered by experiencing hypnotherapy and learning how your brain really works.  It is by learning by doing that you will get to understand how your brain functions, and it is by learning that you can start to get more control over your thoughts feelings and emotions.

    Often our mind has made meanings about things andwe fill locked into our negativity, hypnosis is the key to unlocking this.

    Discover more about learning hypnosis here:

    >>>Video about learning hypnosis uk

    Hypnosis is a fascinating journey that you must discover it is your mind after all isnt it!

    Attend my hypnosis breakthrough weekend and find out what it is all about.

    >>>Hypnosis Course London

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    >>>Weight loss hypnosis work

    Hypnosis Course Secret 2 What is Rapport


    Depressed people think they know themselves, but maybe they only know depression.

    Mark Epstein

    Everyone lives in their own unique model of the world. Our experiences over our lifetime have created ‘things’ like our beliefs and values etc. We all live in a world we have created in our heads, this world is not real but we act as if it were. We directly experience a filtered reality this is the now, this moment, now that moment has gone. What we remember inside our heads and bodies is the world we create in our heads. If I ask you to think of a wheelbarrow you all comprehend what I say you have some re-presentation of a wheelbarrow in your heads but there really isn’t one there – I hope.

    Think of a time when you we out with friends or colleagues. If questioned about the social events of the day no one person’s recollection will be exactly the same, the various interpretations of the day’s events will be even more different.

    Our map of the world has created filters or perhaps our filters have created our map, either way, we filter in the things that fit our map and exclude those things that don’t. We will filter for ‘things’ like good and bad, possible or impossible, self or other. We also filter based on our values and beliefs. By tentatively exploring your own filters, your beliefs and values you gain more information about yourself and by exploration you alter and extend your own map of the world. This process is generative.

    When people argue or disagree, when they don’t share the same view, when they don’t feel the same way; it is most likely because their maps of the world are different. In order to bridge the gap between respective maps we use the process of rapport. Imagine the differences in people’s maps of the world and then think how different cultural maps of the world are.

    “I have also been called one thing and then another while no one really wished to hear what I called myself …”

    Narrator from Ralph Ellison’s “Invisible Man”

    Online Conversational Hypnosis Course Review
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    Online Conversational Hypnosis Course Review | Hepa Air Purifier
    Today I am going to speaking 

    I hope you enjoyed this article and infomration on what are the first steps to learn with or without going on a hypnotherapy course.

    Hypnosis Courses Training Secret1

    Why Rapport is the fundamental prerequisite skill for Hypnosis

    Rapport is a bridge between our own models of the world and another person’s model of the world. When we create rapport with another person we implicitly agree to enter their model of the world and let them into ours. We have a relationship and a connection for that moment.

    In this article I have already written two things that could break rapport because unless you have studied NLP you already might be thinking what is a model of the world? Let me explain quickly in case you have not had any experience of NLP (Neuro Linguistic Programming) in simple terms we all look at things from our own unique perspective everything we experience, everything that we think and do will all do in our own unique way, our own version of it. Often many people say "yes I know what you mean" or "I know how you feel" Unless you have trained and become highly skilled at hypnosis and a master of NLP and Eliciting Emotional States and Associating into those states. The truth is that people do not know how other people feel.  They can only guess based on their own experience or to use the above phrase they can only guess based on their unique model of the world. Rapport is a phrase that is common enough now to put in an article if you have been involved in business or heard the phrase, however if you haven’t heard the word before I am sure that as you discover more the phrase will sit easier with you.

    If you want to learn hypnosis one of the best skills or traits that you can have (for my taste) is to be a likeable person who does not judge other people and is curious about understanding how another person thinks, how and why they  behave they do  and likes to help people get results. Another skill that will hold you in good steed is the ability to be flexible and communicate with a variety of different types of people. Not just people similar to yourself.

    Rapport among friends is an unconscious and natural process. If you look about you will notice them sitting or standing in the same physical position as their friends. If you listen you will hear people using the same phrase or tone in their voice. These are all signs of the natural process of rapport.

    We can also consciously use this knowledge to begin to build rapport with other people. You could match their posture, verbal words, their breathing etc.

    As you are getting better at using your rapport skills so you will be able to notice the more subtle signs of good rapport.  When you’re practicing your skills with another person do the smallest possible thing to create and maintain rapport with another.

    Being in rapport with someone who is different from you may not be a comfortable place. It can feel quite strange, this is because we are extending our map of the world into places it has not yet been. We will be temporarily extending our beliefs and values and ways of thinking to join someone in their model of the world while we offer our model to them.

    If someone is angry or upset we can join them rapport fully by matching their energy.  There is a fine line between joining and escalating the situation or indeed jumping into the quick sand with them.

    Why have I mentioned Rapport when the article is about hypnosis course the reason is that if you are going to hypnotize someone, the first stage of a hypnotic session is Rapport. You need to be able to build trust quickly which happens the first moment communication between you and the subject is opened up.  This could be on the phone, email or meeting them for the first time in appropriate environment.

    >>>NLP Rapport Continued

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    Hypnosis Course Benefits

    Hypnosis is a wonderful and fascinating subject to study for many reasons.  Firstly it is your brain and by learning how to get control over your brain you can make getting the things that you want in your life much easier. You can use hypnosis to improve your well being and your functioning during your day. It can help you feel better physically, emotionally and increase your ability in your mental capacity. I can honestly say that learning hypnosis has transformed my life.  I invite you to demolish any fear you have of hypnosis, as long as you are being coaching by a competent qualified and experienced hypnotherapist only positive well being will come from your experience.  I do understand that being a hypnotic subject or being in a trance, or being hypnotised however you would phrase it to start with can leave you with some doubts or reservations. If you have doubts are concerned or want any information about hypnosis please feel free to give me a call and I will be happy to answer your questions personally. I also felt a little concerned but within me was a curiosity which made me overcome any obstacle and book on a course to learn hypnosis.  I encourage you to do the same. It is only by exploring the power of trance states do you actually get to learn how to control your own brain.  Be honest when was the last time someone told you this is how you can relax in seconds, improve you sleep, give your self suggestions, improve your golf, heal you body faster and much much more?

    Hypnosis is a doorway to the power of your mind and it is only by opening up that door do you get to experience all the wonderful things your mind can do, access positive memories from years ago. Increase positive feelings remove negative feelings; remove stress and much much more.

    I want you to realise that a hypnotherapist can not make you do things that you don’t want to do.

    Until you take the step and book on a course this will be just theory as learning machines we learn by doing and if you want to learn how to get more happiness, more anything in life and more control over your brain hypnosis is the answer. The unknown can make people feel uneasy but it is only by taking action will you be as excited as me writing this post and know how wonderful hypnosis can be for every part of your life. If you have any questions please do not hesitate to contact me. Nothing gives me more pleasure than when I run my breakthrough hypnosis course in london to share the power of your mind and help people get so much more than they thought possible.

    If you want to discover the secrets of hypnosis and how it can help you hurry and register for one of my hypnosis courses, they always sell out


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    Learn Hypnosis Free Info Discover if you can be hypnotised

    Only some people can be hypnotized fact or fiction?

    Everyone can have (and already has had) an experience of hypnosis.

    1. If you’re watching a film and something happens on screen that makes you jump, laugh, cry or feel excited, you’ve been hypnotised.
    1. If you’re driving a long way, and you arrive home and realise you don’t really remember driving the last 20 miles, you’ve been hypnotised.
    1. If you’re listening to someone at lunch telling a story, and your hand stops halfway between your plate and your mouth, suspending your food in the air as you wait for them to finish making a point, you’ve been hypnotised.
    1. If you’ve ever read a book, and you’ve got so into it that you lost all track of time, you’ve been hypnotised.

    These are natural, everyday examples of hypnosis. The fact that you’ve felt this (or something like it) means you can go into a hypnotic trance.

    A hypnotic trance is merely an altered state of consciousness. People are moving between different states of consciousness all the time. Angry, happy, sad and excited: these words describe specific states of consciousness. Hypnotic trance is just one more to add to the list. Hypnosis or trance simply involves a person having an inward focus. One of the useful things about hypnotic trance is that it is a state where many things are possible.

    The idea that not everyone can be hypnotised relates to the fact that some people are not as responsive to a formal hypnotic induction as others. Some forms of hypnosis (E.g. Ericksonian) rely on the flexibility of the hypnotist to help get people to go into trance, but even Erickson is reported to have taken 450 hours to get one woman into trance (not all at one go). In fairness, Erickson was usually a lot quicker, but rarely more persistent.

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    Courses Hypnotherapy & The Milton Model

    Courses on hypnotherapy vary in nature and one of the models that I believe is vital to get to grips with if you want to be a good hypnotist is the Milton model.  In this post I reveal some interesting information about the Milton Model. On my trainings in my nlp practitioner and even my 2 day breakthrough hypnosis course you willhave plenty of time to explore the power of these langage patterns.

    The Milton Model

    When dealing with people, remember you are not dealing with creatures of logic, but creatures of emotion. 

    Dale Carnegie

    Hypnosis is a process that describes a state of mind

    "He was in a trance" …

    Hypnosis is also the process used to induce that state of mind

    "She used hypnosis to get him into a trance".

    Bandler and Grinder used to start their hypnosis seminars with one of them claiming "Everything is hypnosis" and the other claiming "There’s no such thing as hypnosis". They were both right. There’s no such ‘thing’ as hypnosis, and yet every interaction a person has with the world can alter their state (a form of hypnosis). The language we grow up with so conditions our perception that you can think of people as being in a trance all the time.

    Who uses hypnosis? On a regular basis, I see and hear hypnosis being used effectively and intentionally by people as diverse as:









    By using it ‘intentionally’, I’m not suggesting that these people know they are doing hypnosis. I am suggesting that they are using hypnotic communication to achieve a certain goal.

    You can see and hear it being used unintentionally by almost everyone you meet. Language is one of the most powerful hypnotic tools there is, and your ability to use language skilfully marks the difference between performing hypnosis intentionally or unintentionally. Just think of someone who inspired you in some way, or drew you into a story they were telling. All of us have had the experience of listening to someone who was enthralling, and who can transport you into a different situation using words.

    This is hypnosis.

    It may not be quite as dramatic as having you suddenly close your eyes and go into a trance when a man with a pointy beard says "Sleep!", but its still hypnosis. Hypnotic principles have helped establish many of the beliefs you have about yourself and the world. Many limiting beliefs exist because we were told them by a well-meaning adult in a position of authority. Often, the adult’s sentence is accepted as being true, and the statement is installed as a belief. This is hypnosis at its most powerful, and was performed (for better or for worse) on all of us as children.

    The good news is that what can be installed with hypnosis can be uninstalled or replaced with hypnosis. You can even learn how to hypnotise yourself, and take control over your own beliefs and ideas.

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    Contact Us

    If you have any questions regarding the content in this website, about the hypnosis products or hypnosis courses that are mentioned, or just any questions at all don’t hesitate to contact me at the following address. I’d also love to hear any feedback on the site if you’ve found it helpful or have some ideas about how I can improve the site in some way.

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    Lee Bannister hypnosis course

    About Us at Learning hypnosis

    Learning Hypnosis  is dedicated to providing quality information on the subject of how to learn hypnosis and in particular, weekend courses of learning hypnotherapy in London.

    Here you will find helpful reviews, hypnosis scripts hints and tips, hypnosis downloads  informative information and tips abou hypnosis online so that you cane learn hypnosis, self hypnosis and much more. Paul Mckenna and Darren Brown sometims use hypnosis and so can you. This site is in the format of a ‘weblog’ so that each time I post new information, it will come to the top of the front page. This means that you can check back here frequently to see new updates to the information found here.

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    Lee Bannister

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